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Fall 2023 Exhibition: Book of Abstracts

The Undergraduate Research Exhibition, presented by the Office of Undergraduate Research, is a biannual, in-person event in which students showcase original research, scholarly projects, and creative works. Following the event, the EFSC community and the general public can view projects via this online archive.

Twenty-five students took part in the Fall 2023 event on November 29, 2023. View the Exhbition's Flickr photo album.

The Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin on the expression of the alpha-hemolysin encoding gene hly in the methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus reference strain Wood 46

Student Researcher: Sophia Alberts
Mentor: James Yount 

Sophia Alberts' poster

Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant bacterial pathogen. One major contributor to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus is the staphylococcal exotoxin alpha-hemolysin. It is important to consider any influences that antimicrobial therapy could have on the development of staphylococcal disease, particularly in relation to alpha-hemolysin as a key virulence factor.

The Staphylococcus aureus reference strain Wood 46 is a valuable model for evaluating the correlation between antibiotic concentration and alpha-hemolysin expression. The aim of this project is to expose Wood 46 to concentrations equivalent to one-half and one-fourth of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the beta-lactam antibiotic oxacillin, and to quantify the relative expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene using RT-qPCR.

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Sustainable Growth Blanket: Testing Plant Growth with Soil Bacteria on Fiber Sheets

Student Researcher: Leen Abu-Ammour 
Mentor: Ashley Spring

Leen Abu-Ammour's poster

Abstract: This study investigates the impact of dissolvable and non-dissolvable fiber sheets on bacterial reintegration into soil, focusing on tomato plant growth and soil restoration. The hypothesis posits that tomato plants treated with bacteria via dissolving sheets will show significantly faster growth than those treated with non-dissolving sheets and direct soil application. Corn husks and rice paper were employed as non-dissolvable and dissolvable sheets, respectively, carrying a bacterial solution applied to troughs with soil and tomato seeds. Results revealed both sheet types significantly enhanced plant growth, with dissolvable sheets showing a trend of promoting larger growth over time. These findings underscore the potential of dissolvable fiber sheets as a promising method for efficient bacterial reintegration and improved plant development.

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Standardized Patients in Medical Simulation

Student Researcher: Alexandra Brino
Mentor: Timothy Sears 

Alexandra Brino's poster

Abstract: Standardized patients, while not a new concept, have been very beneficial when used in medical training programs as a method of simulation. Using specifically trained individuals that simulate various patient cases, medical programs can train future healthcare professionals in a real-life scenario-based simulations that offer the required feedback that is not given when using low fidelity mannequins. While the specific training will be unique to the medical program using the standardized patients, the clinical significance of this practice cannot be ignored. Practitioners gain necessary skills in communication and competence in interacting with various groups of people.

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Sunseting Sarsaparilla & Fallout: Radiation, Nuclear War, and the Aftermath in the Fallout Series, Chernobyl, Liquidators, and Other Nuclear Science-Fiction

Student Researcher: John Browne 
Mentor: Warren Jones

John Browne's poster

Abstract: Nuclear radiation is an often-misunderstood phenomenon, by the general public and media, allowing for depictions of radiation, such as in Fallout, Godzilla, and Mad Max, that mislead public understanding, or misunderstanding, the science of radiation. In science fiction, radiation has a been a subject of interest since mid-20th century; however, most sci-fi narratives have altered actual science of radiation to fit narratives and plot points Nuclear radiation, often in the public consciousness through its depiction in film, however misunderstood, reflects the lack of science education in American schools, as seen in the NAEP report revealing that 75% of 12th graders have a less than NAEP Proficient level of science education, meaning 7/10 young adults are incompetent in their sciences, As per these new reports, the public understanding of science, yet less nuclear energy or radiation, has not advanced significantly in the last few decades, and coupled with that is the problem of trying to creatively simulate nuclear energy or radiation in fiction without boring audiences with particle physics. Traditionally in sci-fi, radiation causes harm by making people “ill,” an illness that resembles a severe cold or, as in more modern depictions, an unrealistically accelerated cancer. Some Narratives such as Mad Max: Beyond the Thunderdome, Chernobyl (2019) the HBO feature series, Liquidators, and The Expanse handle radiation relatively accurately in their depiction. However, the Fallout franchise and the S.T.A.L.K.E.R. franchise utilize radiation in a more accurate way to real radiation and radiation poisoning. For those focused on the use/misuse of radiation in films, we are interested in how the new serial show (2024) of the Fallout video game.

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What is a More Beneficial Approach to Removing Endometriosis and the Pain That Comes With it: Ablation or Excision?

Student Researcher: Brianna Ciambriello 
Mentor: Harry Holdorf 

Brianna Ciambriello's poster

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to not only educate and learn about the significance of endometriosis and how to treat it, but also to raise awareness on how little research there really is on this painful disease. Endometriosis is a very common painful disease in women that causes pelvic pain especially during menstruation. While there is no cure, there are treatments for it like surgery. Excision and ablation surgery are the most common options for treatment for endometriosis. This research shows how they compare, contrast, and which is more beneficial for the patient that is experiencing the pain. Many studies and trials over the years show the differences and similarities between excision and ablation and that is what is presented here in this research project.

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Scott Pilgrim vs. Adaptations: Cross-Media Storytelling from The Dark Knight to The Scott Pilgrim Universe

Student Researcher: Maryssa DeVincenzo 
Mentor: Warren Jones

Maryssa DeVincenzo's poster

Abstract: Even before Barny Rubble and Fred Flintstone sold cigarettes in a commercial for Winston Cigarettes in 1961, cross-media has evolved culminating in the newest version of Scott Pilgrim vs. The World and Scott Pilgrim Takes Off. Cross-media storytelling consists of two media objects belonging to the same semantic category, evolving into a form of storytelling. The most recent and famous uses of cross-media tend to mix media for the sake of advertising, such as when Batman: The Dark Knight released a video game in preparation for the movie allowing players to steal the same bus the Joker steals in the movie, in comparison to Aqua Teen Hunger Force placing LED panels of characters around Boston to promote their new movie, which scared Boston officials who thought the objects were potential bombs. Cross-media has also been consumed in the form of taking pictures and posting them online of "your favorite movie character" with social media platforms Snapchat and Instagram promoting Avatar: The Way of Water by letting users wear Avatar like face paint over their face as a filter, encouraging uses to go see the film on release date. Scott Pilgrim has enjoyed a new level of cross-media. Creator Brandon Lee O’Malley started Scott Pilgrim as a comic book in 2004, which then became a live action version of the comic in 2010, concurrently released with a video game. In 2023, a new animated TV series, voiced by the live-action characters from 13 years ago, debuted. As the lines blur across entertainment sources, from social media to Televised series, from films to video games, all interwoven with advertising, cross-media seems to be the forthcoming answer to the fragmentation of entertainment into many different venues and sources. 

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Environmental Impact Assessment of Paint Equipment Washout in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

Student Researcher: Elizabeth Eskildsen and Dallas Eskildsen (First Place Project)
Mentor: Ashley Spring 

Eskildsen Poster

Abstract: Paint disposal techniques, including equipment washout, may negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The hypothesis of this phase of the study posits that the presence of latex paint at increasing concentrations of none (control), low, medium, and high concentrations will result in decreased activity and survival levels among earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax). The research also highlighted the environmental risks associated with titanium dioxide, especially in nanoparticle form, found in paints and primer-sealers. The findings underscored the need for ongoing research into the long-term and chronic impacts of these substances on aquatic environments and organisms.

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The Benefits of Planet Earth: Nature Cheaper than Therapy

Student Researcher: Desiree Floyd 
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Desiree Floyd's poster

Abstract: The benefits of Green Garden Therapy and Ecotherapy involves with planet Earth by healing depression, reviving youth and finding a green space. Green Garden Therapy is an activity that helps prepare people to interact with plants. With successful results, studies have been conducted by doctors and researchers about Green Garden Therapy and Ecotherapy.

The practice of Ecotherapy focuses on engaging with nature. When interacting and engaging with the environment it helps mobility in the body and decreases aging. Individuals living with chronic pain have positive results when practicing Green Garden Therapy and Ecotherapy. Both therapies find the source of depression and unwanted illnesses. Gardening statistically shows being involved in the ecosystem shifts the behavior of the mind and body. 

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One + One = Critical Thinking: Does Game Development Help Build Critical Thinking

Student Researcher: Caleb Harrelson
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Caleb Harrelson's poster

Abstract: Game development is a creative and fun way for kids and even adults to improve upon critical thinking along with other mental skills. Some people may argue that game development can only be done by people with high degrees in college, however, anyone can go into game development no matter their age or educational background. For example, a 17-year-old Parker Anderson created his game Weaponeer during his time in school with the help of VoxPop Games and AbleGamers. In fact, the Library of Congress is holding a contest for making video games and the winner gets $20,000, which shows that even the government is interested in young people getting into game development. There have also been multiple case studies with educational game development websites such as Java Shooter which is an easy way to learn about the ins and outs of game development. In these studies, the authors have seen that students who learns game development increases their creativity, imagination, problem solving skills, thinking out of the box, and critical thinking skills dramatically.

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Should ultrasound be the diagnostic exam of choice for screening breast cancer in men?

Student Researcher: Victoria Hernandez 
Mentor: Dr. Harry Holdorf

Victoria Hernandez's poster

Abstract: My research compares the imaging of the breast as it pertains to men and women and assesses which imaging modality is best suited for diagnosing breast cancer in men. My research would be submitted alongside an infographic that outlines breast cancer in women. My research highlights reasons why I think ultrasound offers more specificity and sensitivity than mammography when it comes to diagnosing breast cancer in dense breast tissue.

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Pre-Ischemic stroke symptoms leading to a Carotid artery scan

Student Researcher: Samantha Inglis 
Mentor: Dr. Harry Holdorf

Samantha Inglis' poster

Abstract: Pre-ischemic strokes are on the rise and can cause loss of various functions within the body as well as mortality. If a person experiences any of the pre-stroke symptoms, they can get a carotid artery scan and seek emergency medical assistance. In order to protect the carotid artery, additional medical procedures can be carried out once the scan is obtained.

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I’m Perceived, Therefore I Am: Dystopian Narratives, Self-Commodifying, and Generation Z's 21st-century Perception of Individuality

Student Researcher: Victoria Jackson
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Victoria Jackson's poster

Abstract: The impact of heightened surveillance, both real world and those represented in dystopian narratives (such as Brave New World, The Hunger Games, 1984, Black Mirror, and others), has intensified commodification and self-mythologizing within Generation Z, yielding a distinctly different sense of individualism compared with former generations. From Bentham through Foucault to Lyon, the conversation surrounding surveillance is continually evolving and adapting in relation to the evolution of new media through which surveillance occurs, especially within the context of our contemporary digital world. Generation Z endures an unprecedented level of surveillance, surpassing anything witnessed in prior generations, as technological advancements and the ubiquitous use of social media create a heightened state of hyper-perceptibility (and, more so, the possibility of scrutiny) that sets their experience apart from their predecessors. This surveillance culture has significantly shifted Generation Z’s concepts of individualism, especially in light of such frameworks as Internalized Authority and the Prison of the Mind. From Brave New World to Doctor Who (such as Satellite 5), the over-saturation of media and the illusion of choice of surveillance is actualized. The Hunger Games to Nope features exploitation due to surveillance as a means to prove individual existence. In Black Mirror’s Nosedive to Barbie (2023), faux interconnectedness and conspicuous consumption are by-products of their surveillance societies. In 1984 and We, the dystopian cornerstones, exemplify the extremes of totalitarianism and embody the future feared by Generation Z, even as they unwittingly contribute to its inevitable realization All of which raise interesting questions about whether we have reached a new normal, or if such a surveillance of individualization will follow dystopian narratives and lead to an even darker future. 

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Self-efficacy and Its Relationship to Depression/Anxiety

Student Researcher: Briona Jones, Fabiola Rivas Orozco 
Mentor: Robert Caruso 

Briona Jones and Fabiola Rivas Orozco's poster

Abstract: Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Similar findings suggest that the concept of self-efficacy has a general role on mental health. A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well-being in many ways. Such an efficacious outlook produces personal accomplishments, reduces stress, and lowers vulnerability to depression. In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks and have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals they choose to pursue, falling easy victim to stress and depression. Adolescence is an extremely important period to develop competencies required for adult life and early stressful experiences may be related to the development of depression and anxiety in adulthood. Previous research has been confined to adults. It will be interesting to study the correlations between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety, depression and worry and see if they hold up or not.

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Schrödinger's Mimic: Doubles, Shapeshifters, and Inauthentic Reality Infiltrating Sci-fi and Fantasy

Student Researcher: Sean Kohut 
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Sean Kohut's poster

Abstract: The perennial trope of abnormal imitations posing as objects, creatures, and people in roleplaying games (Dark Souls, Final Fantasy, Dungeons & Dragons), films (The Thing, Us, It), and literature (The Outsider, Dark Matter, Harry Potter), poses surreal and often unnerving questions of personal identity and the legitimacy of existence. Since antiquity, the concept of the double has been ubiquitous in the folklore of various cultures, often tapping into what is conventionally understood to be a primal fear of the unknown. Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud, Masahiro Mori and others provide tenable analyses suggesting that the uncanny sensation evoked by the amorphous lies within familiarity. According to Dimitris Vardoulaki, the doppelgänger is a literary response to the philosophical focus on subjectivity. Through self-conceptualization individuals are able to understand how they fit into place within the world; however, if counterfeit entities are introduced, a plausible concern of psychological instability manifests. Stephen King’s The Outsider illustrates a competent and principled detective lead, who begins to question what’s real about himself and his world when attempting to solve a heinous crime. John Carpenter’s film The Thing examines the dread among researchers and their rapid descent into madness, as a shapeshifting alien hunts them. Fromsoft’s video game Dark Souls manages to instill paranoia with its clever use of deadly illusions and object forgeries. While threats such as identity theft have been limited in their remoteness within the modern world, the possibility of new dangers arise with the advent of current A.I. technology, and its capability to replicate not only the likeness but also the voice and mannerisms of real people, not unlike that of a doppelgänger or mimic.

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Practical Applications for Living in a Tree: Growing Not Building

Student Researcher: Julie McClellan
Mentor: Ashley Spring

Julie McClellan's poster

Abstract: Living structures harness and direct the growth of plants to create a structural framework which mimics natural shapes and forms, but it is often seen as impractical due to the varied growth rates of plants naturally ideal for the intended structural applications. This study explores if topically inoculating Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) with rooting hormone (Indole-3-butyric acid), or rhizofungus (Rhizophagus irregularis), or rhizobacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) have significant effects on its early growth. Twenty inoculated Carolina willow cuttings were grown for a 4-week period and final length and weight measured showed that cuttings inoculated with the rhizofungus and the control group had significantly greater roots and stems than the cuttings inoculated with the rooting hormone. The results of this experiment support the potential of living structures as a practical alternative to current construction methods.

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Inverse Cyborgs: Machines Re-envisioning Their Selfhood, from The Tardis to The Terminator

Student Researcher: Cameron Myjak 
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Cameron Myjak's poster

Abstract: Utilizing concepts of mutability, mergeability, and elasticity allows for a problematizing yet deeper understanding of Cyborgs as depicted in The Expanse, MCU, Star Trek, and the Terminator franchise. Expanding from Haraway’s criteria and definition of a cyborg to Gray et al.’s Modified: Living as a Cyborg (2021) allows us to recontextualize cyborg as many other possibilities beyond the typical trope of the 1900s cyborg, where man relies on merging with machine, such as in The Expanse and Star Trek (2009) as well with Bucky’s replacement arm and Steve Austin’s bionics. A less commonly identified type of cyborg is that of the inverse cyborg, such as The Vision, Data, or Carl (Terminator: Dark Fate), where they have a need/desire to acquire a sense of self. Other cyborg forms such as Robot from Lost in Space (2018) or Hugh in the Star Trek Universe seek not humanhood, but rather personhood, an autonomy of existence outside of their collective machine worlds. Less anthropomorphized cyborgs seek a singular sense of self without desiring to become human, such as the Tardis in Doctor Who and EDI in Mass Effect. These inverse cyborgs, and others, seek to evolve or grow from their original state to become more alive, but not necessarily more human. 

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Viability of Convolutional Neural Networks for detection of aquacultural parasites

Student Researcher: John Nelson (Second Place Project)
Mentor: Ashley Spring

John Nelson's poster

Abstract: Gill flukes, also called gillworms, are monogenean trematode flatworms (Dactylogyrus sp.) that are a major problem among aquaculture facilities because infections smother the gills, resulting in death. The hypothesis of this research is that a trained convolutional neural network (CNN) can detect with statistical significance the presence of gill flukes using microscopic images of gill scrapes. A dataset of 1,000 published images was used to train a CNN, and an additional 40 unseen images were used for testing the success rate of the CNN. The results of this research show that, although there is great potential for use of a CNN to detect the presence of gill flukes, a larger and more varied dataset is required for development a CNN to accurately detect the presence of gill flukes.

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Gopher Tortoise Distribution in the High Human Activity Areas of Wickham Park

Student Researcher: Riley Renfro (Third Place Project)
Mentor: Penny McDonald 

Riley Renfro's poster

Abstract: Gopher Tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus, are a species of threatened chelonian native to Florida. They are known as keystone species and environmental engineers because of the 4.5 meter (15 ft) long burrows they dig. A survey done covering 0.656 sq km of high human activity areas of Wickham Park analyzed correlations between burrow location, status, size, and other factors. Out of the 165 burrows surveyed, the dimensions for active burrows were much larger (by average) than inactive ones. Furthermore, a new phenomenon (observed in three different locations around the park) was discovered. Manmade elevation areas had extremely high burrow densities, even when the habitat had sub-par food resources. These areas created Gopher Tortoise burrow hot spots and were the only locations where juvenile sized burrows were found. This information is a huge step in Gopher Tortoise behavioral analysis and has many conservation applications.

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"I Always Come Back" A look into the world of Five Night's at Freddy's in correlation to Generation Z

Student Researcher: Emma Sigarto
Mentor: Warren Jones

Emma Sigarto's poster

Abstract: The indie horror game Five Night’s at Freddy’s connects to Generation Z and why people enjoy horror games, this involves the feeling of completion that relieves stress, the euphoric high felt along with the feeling of nostalgia, the intensity given when watching others in fear, as well as putting themselves in the situations of thrill. Five Night’s at Freddy’s was a game created by Scott Cawthon, where the player works as a night guard, fending for their life against killer animatronics. The game uses outdated technology and graphics to place the player into the time when the game takes place, the 1980s. Many sources in articles and journals discuss the Nostalgia and Horror that draws people back to the game. The Excitation Transfer Theory proposes that people enjoy the feeling of resolution when the story of a horror movie or game is over, allowing the player to feel safe, as the high intensity situations are over. When applied, this theory explains why people love the feeling of completion, compelling them to advance further into the story. Gamers enjoy the feelings of conclusion and nostalgia, which draws them back over and over to feel the same euphoric high as before. Viewers also enjoy watching others in fear, people like to soften the blow of the initial horror, explaining why people watch youtubers play horror games, rather than playing themselves. Finally, Gamers like putting themselves in situations to gives themselves a release of intensity, thinking about how they would react when placed in these horror situations.

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An Exploration of The Viability of a Lactose Intolerance Gene Therapy in Mammalian Cell Culture

Student Researcher: Cassalynn Staats and Joseph Adely 
Mentor: Jim Yount

Cassalynn Staats, Joseph Adely's poster

Abstract: Lactose intolerance, the inability to digest lactose due to lactase enzyme deficiency, affects a significant portion of the global population. 
While short-term treatments are available, the long-term impact of lactose intolerance and its treatment strategies on murine small intestine epithelial cells remains underexplored. 
This study aims to provide insights into the treatment method presented by Justin Atkin and obtain quantitative data regarding the efficiency of the treatment and the rate at which it wears off. 
Using the media collected from the cell culture to perform a quantitative analysis of the lactase enzyme activity before and after treatment. 
This study treats 3/4 cultures with a novel gene therapy using Adeno Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as the vector. 
This gene therapy has been reported to increase lactase production to lactose-tolerant levels for about 1 month (Atkin, 2018). 
After treatment, the culture media will be observed regularly to quantify the lactase enzyme activity through an enzymatic assay.

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How pH Affects reproductive rates of freshwater snail Physella actua

Student Researcher: Anjolie Troutman 
Mentor: Ronald Vanderveer 

Anjolie Troutman's poster

Abstract: This study observed the highly invasive freshwater gastropod Physella acuta whose invasion is characterized by high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a wide range of freshwater environments. This has caused displacement of many freshwater gastropod species worldwide. (Taylor 2003). Previous studies have focused on how different chemicals such as essential oils (Bendini 2016) and salinity affect survival rate of P. acuta (Kefford 2005). The focus of this study was to observe the effects of pH on reproductive rate. The hypothesis then is that higher levels of alkalinity (above 9) will lower the reproductive rate of P. acuta. 

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“What is Grief, If Not Love Persevering”: Prolonged Grief Disorder, Complex Grief, and Fog of Grief in She-ra and the Princesses of Power, WandaVison, and Agents of Shield.

Student Researcher: Angelique Williams
Mentor: Warren Jones 

Angelique Williams' poster

Abstract: Alternate fantasy grief cycle or lack thereof in popular narratives furthers character development and ultimately drives characters to take action of becoming a hero or a villain. Fictional characters often do not follow the well-established Kubler-Ross’s model of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) but follow a fictional grief cycle in which the grief serves the plot around them. Prolonged grief disorder (DSM-5), complex grief (DSM-5) and/or April Reese's “Fog of Grief” are often character motivations instigating a split-second decision between becoming a hero or a villain. Wanda, from WandaVison, made her decision in a moment where she freed the people of Westview from her control and grief. Catra, from She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, becomes a hero through sacrifice because of her grief from Adora’s betrayal. Jinx, from Arcane, in a fog of grief from the death of Slico, taking her final step in villainy through an act of terrorism. Daisy Johnson, from Agents of Shields, decides to rejoin Hive in her own grief. Through these characters and the events they endured, grief in the media is not a response; it's a motivation, allowing the way for powerful, emotional moments and offers a fast and effective way to change a character for the storyline.

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Practical Application of Barium Sulfate Cooling Pigment

Student Researcher: Devin Wright 
Mentor: Amanda Newton 

Devin Wright 's poster

Abstract: Densified barium sulfate nanospheres have shown great promise in their ability to be used as a cooling pigment. However, current manufacturing techniques have several flaws, such as complex construction, UV stability, and high cost. This study aims to determine if a barium sulfate/polymethyl methacrylate laminate retains the cooling properties of barium sulfate pigments. Results greater than zero percent would significantly impact structural cooling costs and greenhouse emissions

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Robtic Prosthesis: Sensory Development 

Student Researcher: Barbara Zent 
Mentor: Bruce Hesher

Trinity Hendricks' poster

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to widen the understanding between soft robotics in prosthetics and the information feedback of regulated sensory systems. These systems demonstrate a current barrier in information interpretation that can be closed through a further understanding of how these processes configure communication. By shortening these communication networks between the input from the stimulatory surroundings and output to nerves, sensation may be increased for certain sensory thresholds. The primary scope of this project will look towards a connection between programmed biosensors and tactile senses in soft robotic prosthetics. This will be demonstrated through increasing sensory information input to the nerve pathways through the computerization of these biosensors and pathways. Increasing the regulation of tactile sensitivity development in robotics will allow for greater interpretation of the physical world through prosthetics, as well as being the trigger for warning receptors in dangerous situations, such as temperature regulation and other situations that may cause potential damage to the prosthetic.

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